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Dubai crisis export volume of foreign trade marketing price rise down

More than a year after the financial tsunami, people thought that the crisis has passed. However, the Dubai debt crisis atmosphere of the global financial market downturn, raising fears that a new round of financial crisis struck. Dubai on November 26, 2009 announced restructuring of its largest business entity of Dubai World, Dubai World and the debt moratorium for 6 months.

HC screen Special printing network December 2009 trade sentiment index closed at 1378.49 points, down 23.00% ring last month, showing a decline in the trend; foreign trade price index closed at 110.20 points, ring up a 13.60 percent the previous month, showing a rising trend. Trade confidence index closed at 981.48 points, down 12.24% last month, Central, was a marked decline in the trend.

One, in December 2009 a marked decline in foreign trade sentiment index

1. Dubai turmoil in Shaoxing Textile Export markets. In Financial More than a year after the tsunami, people thought that the crisis has passed. However, the Dubai debt crisis atmosphere of the global financial market downturn, raising fears that a new round of financial crisis struck. Dubai on November 26, 2009 announced restructuring of its largest business entity of Dubai World, Dubai World and the debt moratorium for 6 months. After the news came out, not only revive the momentum of the global economic crisis weakened, but also the Middle East as the main export market, textile enterprises in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province has been the industry began to re-examine the metaphor of the “golden channel” of the “New Silk Road.” China Textile City in Shaoxing, from Dubai and the Middle East buyers more. Dubai’s debt crisis, with the Dubai Textile City, and other Middle East trade by a certain influence, part of the Textile City, Dubai, business users have been orders from the performance of caution. Industry, “said Dubai crisis” of the textile enterprises in Shaoxing’s exports to the Middle East region can not be ignored, especially in gray cloth, fabric and Clothing Other downstream products, exports to the region have been more active, especially with batik fabric, rayon fabric, and synthetic fabrics such as a more direct impact. Shaoxing, according to customs statistics, 1 October 2009, Shaoxing County, the UAE exports 410 million U.S. dollars, exports of textile fabrics and garments mainly. Shaoxing County officials said the bureau of foreign trade, the debt crisis may result in Shaoxing textile export volume reduced recently, and Shaoxing, the direct impact on the UAE this year, export growth target. “Dubai crisis” caused by the outbreak of the textile industry in China is indeed a certain shocks, particularly textile and garment enterprises in Shaoxing. But the debt crisis of the whirlpool – Dubai World company mainly involved in transport logistics, shipping docks, urban development, investment and financial services investment in the long term point of view, Shaoxing’s textile and garment exports in general have limited impact. These areas of investment and direct business contact Shaoxing textile is not very close, so, although the short term or on Shaoxing’s textile exports to the Middle East will be some impact, but long-term implications of the crisis may also further attention. Dubai, after all, only in the Middle East transit point for trade in textile export enterprises face is behind the broader Middle East, Africa. Dubai While “crisis” being, but the world economy is gradually recovering, visionary textile enterprises should avoid short-term speculation to long-term investment philosophy to invest in Dubai, after all inventive move.

2. Low-carbon economy led to reduced consumption in textiles, textile enterprises energy saving on Environmental protection Higher demands. United States, France and some other developed countries, the introduction of carbon tariffs gestation, a time of sweeping global low carbon economy, as industries subject of concern. The so-called low-carbon economy, by definition, is to Energy Changes in the core, to achieve maximum use of limited resources. Low carbon economy involves a wide range of industries and fields such as textile and garment industry, printing and dyeing industry, steel and other manufacturing industries. Take textile and garment industry, low carbon economy led to reduced consumption in textiles, textile enterprises on environmental protection put forward higher requirements for energy conservation. In fact, as early as environmental issues are included in the global crisis, Chinese textile and garment industry known for high pollution, high energy consumption for the world knowledge, which is very conducive to development of the industry. In the philosophy of environmental protection is increasingly important today, textile and apparel industry must be energy saving as a task to practice, and only really needs to reach Europe and the United States and other countries environmental protection, China’s textile and apparel industry can be brilliant to go out. Regardless of whether the imposition of carbon tariffs if other countries like Europe and the United States, environmental protection has long been a variety of fields of production practice. Face of the global advocate the development of revolutionary ideas a low carbon economy, to encourage the development of new industries of textile, textile products to support high-tech research and development applications, has become China’s textile industry restructuring new proposition. Shaoxing County is the gathering place of the national textile industry, many textile enterprises have already set an example, the textile industry in the technological transformation projects Tazhun the “low-carbon economy,” the pace, but some small and medium textile enterprises in Europe and America and other countries are still difficult to achieve the requirements of environmental protection.

Guangdong's foreign trade import and export growth in April before the three percent

From January to April, total imports and exports of Guangdong 2,151.66 billion U.S. dollars, up 32.4%.

    Guangdong Provincial Reform Commission website on May 21 message, in April, Guangdong’s imports and exports continue to maintain rapid growth of restorative, total imports and exports 61.959 billion U.S. dollars, up by 31.7%. Of which: Exports 34,445,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 24.4%; imports 27,514,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 42.0%.

    From January to April, the province’s total imports and exports total 2,151.66 billion U.S. dollars, up 32.4%. Of which: exports 1,203.72 billion U.S. dollars, up 22.1%; imports 94.794 billion U.S. dollars, up 48.2%; achieve 25.578 billion U.S. dollars foreign trade surplus, down 26.1%. Import, export volumes were more than the same period before the outbreak of the financial crisis levels, respectively, from January to April 2008, an increase of 7.8% and 0.2%. Main features are:

    1, processing trade export growth accelerated. April, exports of processing trade in Guangdong 21,310,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 28.0%, an increase of more than 4.4 percentage points higher general trading, 2.7 percentage points last month to speed up; processing trade 14,422,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 45.0%, an increase of 6.6 lower than the month percentage points. From January to April, the province exported 72.009 billion U.S. dollars of processing trade, imports 46.725 billion U.S. dollars, up by 19.0% and 41.3%.

    Second, general trade import growth slowed. In April, the province’s general trade import 9.962 billion U.S. dollars, up 41.3%, down 30.4 percent growth the previous month; exports 11.052 billion U.S. dollars, up 23.6%. From January to April, the province’s general trade exports 40.369 billion U.S. dollars, imports 36.426 billion U.S. dollars, up by 31.1% and 59.8%.

    Third, exports of foreign-invested enterprises increased rapidly. April exports of foreign invested enterprises across the province 21,649,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 30.1%, an increase significantly higher than state-owned, collective and private enterprises; imports of 16,935,000,000 U.S. dollars, up 42.0%. From January to April, the province’s import and export of foreign-invested enterprises 1,313.58 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for the province’s total foreign trade 61.0%, an increase of 31.0%, an increase of less than 1.4 percentage points all import and export.

    Fourth, ASEAN, Japan, Taiwan trade deficit continues to grow. From January to April, the province of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Japan, Taiwan exported 9.526 billion, 6.291 billion and 1.486 billion U.S. dollars, from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Japan, Taiwan imported 14.229 billion, 14.002 billion and 12.643 billion U.S. dollars. ASEAN, Japan, Taiwan continues to maintain three major sources of imports for the status of Guangdong, Guangdong on the three regions and countries of the deficit was 4.703 billion, 7.711 billion and 11.157 billion U.S. dollars, than the same period last year were up 78.1%, 91.4% and 45.4 %.

    5, the traditional intensive exports improved slightly from last month. In April, the province’s exports of apparel and clothing accessories, 1.73 billion U.S. dollars, growth of 29.1% year on year went down 0.8%; from January to April, the province’s exports of apparel and clothing accessories rose 8.2%, textile yarn, fabrics and related products up 19.7 %, footwear, furniture, plastic products, and luggage were up 7.7%, 27.1%, 3.0% and 0.4%.

Wenzhou Foreign Trade Export And Other Industries Affected By Red Light Pens

“Sub-prime” spread to foreign trade enterprises, exports slumped, the export surge in bad debts, the rapid development of China’s foreign trade sector under the awareness of risk re-vacancy.

Involved the sub-prime crisis, the United States has become the hardest hit exporters, especially China’s foreign trade enterprises.

“By the sub-prime crisis, in the first half, we received a number of national reported year on year increase of 125%. The United States since the outbreak of the sub-prime crisis, many U.S. and European companies encounter cash flow difficulties, some of which European and American companies will shift the risk to China’s export enterprises . “Wenzhou, China Export & Credit Insurance head office, said Zhou Yi told reporters.

The sub-prime crisis in U.S. corporate default rates rise. According to the China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation Wenzhou Office statistics, in March 2007 to February 2008, the Department received Wenzhou export loss cases reported involving a total amount of 8.7938 million U.S. dollars, an increase of 639% (the national values of the same period in the case of reported loss an increase of 250%). The reported loss in the case of Wenzhou, 75% of the cases the amount from the United States. Demonstrated by the U.S. sub-prime mortgage crisis has caused a major economic slowdown in developed countries, the impact on exports are constantly emerging.

Reported loss increased by 639% behind the case, which reflects the economic environment in large under the influence of China’s foreign trade sector, especially export-oriented enterprises in Wenzhou suffered a debt crisis is being upgraded, but also to be getting worse.

Wenzhou sub-prime crisis has led to “a low and one high” International 5 1000 households in arrears Bangshangyouming

Ultimately passed on to the impact of a series of export enterprises themselves. To Wenzhou footwear companies, for example, buyers are relatively concentrated, the United States is the main market, due to the sub-prime crisis, dragging down the U.S. economy in general degree of consumer markets, leading to market demand. According to statistics, compared with a loss of Wenzhou shoe enterprises increased by 138% over the same period last year, dollar-denominated export growth rate of just 0.3%, if the calculation of export delivery value of the yuan business volume is actually a negative growth!

Not just shoe, Wenzhou’s foreign trade can not be optimistic about the overall situation. Wenzhou City Development and Reform Commission, according to the disclosure of material: from January to April this year, the city’s import and export, export, import growth in all three indicators below the national, provincial average, respectively, lower than the national 5.7,0.5 and 18.3 percentage points lower than the full Province, 6.2,2.9 and 17.8 percentage points.

Wenzhou’s foreign trade sector as a whole in lower, the market also have to accept a not good news, “higher” phenomenon. Zhou Yi, told reporters that in 2008 a quarter of U.S. buyers do not increase the number of reported cases of loss, but the surge in the amount of reported losses. A quarter of U.S. buyers loss Chuxian the number of cases reported increased by 12.2% year on year; while the total amount of reported losses year on year increase of 144.4%. An increase in the number of cases reported little damage cases, the reported surge in the amount of damage, which indicates that in 2008 a quarter of U.S. buyers Chuxian single cases reported a higher loss rates, risk is more concentrated.

In fact, Wenzhou is not the case, the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and other risks faced by foreign trade enterprises are increasing. Some buyers have even export enterprises due to payment arrears has been frozen China Export & Credit Insurance underwriting credit. So far, around the world because of China’s export enterprises in arrears payments to overseas buyers, as well as the loss of solvent due to the bankruptcy of overseas buyers there are five more than 1000 families have been registered.

Nationwide, the first half of this year, China Export & Credit Insurance helps insurance companies tens of thousands of customers in the overseas corporate customers credit qualification survey. To private economic underdevelopment of Liaoning, for example, the first two months of this year, China’s Export Credit Insurance Corporation, Liaoning Branch received a total of more than 20 companies reported export risks, the case of the value of more than 6 million U.S. dollars, respectively, 283% higher than the same period last year and 286 %. From the reported situation, the first two months this year, export enterprises face the risk has two characteristics: First, a low level of risk and areas of Europe and the United States and other developed countries the incidence of the risk of proliferation, accounting for more than half of the total reported over the same period last year by 333%; 2 in the report of “rejection” a total of nine cases, the ratio of up to 39%. “Rejection” proportional increase, often means that the buyer’s ability to pay is inadequate and has made clear the buyer’s degree of the host country’s market economy down, these have led to the export business of property, loss of profits. Zhou Yi, told reporters that the United States the risk of buyers from the corporate type of view, involved buyers from various industries, traders, manufacturers and chain operators are, from the industry, the general area of a majority of consumer goods .

3% of the export credit insurance coverage below the international standards, the amount of reported losses over the same period two and half times Bizeng

Should be pointed out that the international trade event in the international arena debt default had long existed, but other countries, export credit system is very advanced for its own foreign trade sector has played a very good hedge and preventive role, while the China Export & Credit Insurance As the late start, many enterprises lack of knowledge, the U.S. sub-prime mortgage crisis has led to this phenomenon is very prominent.

Import Export Data – Importance in Foreign Trade

Foreign trading requires the trader to have a thorough knowledge of trade laws laid down by the authorities of different countries. Various companies have made the task of assimilating the required information easier for traders through facilities like the online import export data. This online export import data of India has become an important source for traders to get a single point access to all the necessary information.


The data of export import India is a medium to provide traders not only the information they require but also consultancy based on the foreign trade laws of different countries. Study of records of the past trade transactions helps in making the international trading more beneficial. Here the online data of export import India is of great importance as it contains standardized and filtered information in accordance to the actual shipping bills collected from various ports. It grants access to millions of records, current as well as historical at minimal charges.


The export import data of India gives detailed product description as well along with the HS codes. This data also includes details about the ports with complete address and contact information too. In international trading knowing the cost of transaction and final cost of commodity as per the exchange rates prescribed is important. The online export import data of India has proved useful in giving a correct estimation of cost according to the conversions prescribed by the customs during the transaction. Another tedious task for traders is to find authentic and new foreign buyers. The data of export import India is an important source for finding authentic foreign buyers. The India export import data includes the names of exporters and importers along with full address, telephone and fax numbers and other contact details.


The greatest importance of the online India export import data is reduction of workload of traders. The traders do not need to search for any updates by the customs, government or changes inn the foreign trade policies. This import export data is updated daily and links to all the updates are provided thereby reducing the need to search for any additional information. All these benefits of this online data can be accessed and downloaded easily at minimal cost, making the service user friendly and cost effective. This data acts as an information bank as well as a guide for traders. In case of any problem the traders can refer to the information and contact details of various authorities and people concerned. This data is an important source of information and help to traders for establishing great international trade relations.

International Trade and Import & Export

If you happen walk into a store in London and are able to buy a Banarasi Sari (a Traditional Indian women dress) then you are experiencing the effects of International Trade.

For any Nation that is considered to be a world power, International Trade is an important source of economic revenue and may even have a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). International Trade has been taking place between countries since medieval times through trade routes like Silk Route etc. In today’s modern times due to industrialization the face of International trade has changed through MNC’s, outsourcing and globalization.

In simple words the exchange of certain specific technologies, capital, goods and services (in bulk) between nations as per their requirements is International Trade. It opens up a sea of opportunities for the nations. International trade allows nations to expand their markets for both goods and services that otherwise may not have been available in other countries. Import and Export is the basic method by which the International Trade occurs. Nature has not endowed everyone with everything, some nations have something and some others have the other things. So in this context it becomes all the more important for trade to take place between the nations. Importing means getting something you need from other nation and exporting means giving other countries what they need from you. A great way to expand your business internationally is by importing and exporting goods. Companies taking part in international business have been known to grow faster and fail lesser.

International trade gives rise to a world economy where supply and demand or prices of the goods and services are affected by global events. Political change in India, for example, might result in an increase in the cost of labor and raw materials, thereby increasing the manufacturing costs for an American Garment manufacturing company based in India, which would then result in an increase in the price in the American Market. This type of trade brings not only increases the efficiency but also increases the opportunity of Foreign Direct Investment in the country. It also helps the countries embark the path of specialization and therefore make more efficient use of resources, international trade has potential to maximize a country’s capacity to produce and acquire goods for example India is world known for IT services, Japan for it’s Technological know-how, China for bulk and cheap manufacturing etc.

Global Trade also gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be introduced to goods and services not available in their own countries. If companies are ready for international trade, the government in each country offers a number of programs to help them get started. There are very strict regulations on import and export business so it is critical that firms understand which of these regulations apply to them and the implications. They also have to abide by the trade agreements regarding the goods between the two nations.

Export Factoring – Learn How to Finance your International Sales with Factoring

Selling your goods internationally can be extremely rewarding and challenging at the same time. When you start exporting goods, you truly open your company to a world of possibilities, including the possibility of big financial rewards. At the same time, you expose yourself to some of the challenges of international commerce.

Many international transactions are settled using bank or corporate letters of credit, which means you can rest assured that you will be paid on time. However, many of your clients will insist that you give them payment terms. This means you may need to wait 30, 60 or even 90 days before you get paid. And if your company is growing, waiting to get paid can be very tough.

Going to the bank for a business loan may or may not work. Most banks only give business loans to businesses that have a great past history. But this is of little use to businesses that have a short history but a bright future.

A better option is to consider factoring your invoices, which eliminates the 30 day wait that it takes to get paid. Export factoring (or international factoring as it is also known) can be a very useful tool for new and growing businesses.

Factoring is a form of financing, where a factoring company advances you a substantial portion on your invoices. The factoring company waits to get paid, while you get immediate use of the funds. This eliminates the cash flow issues that happen when you extend terms.

Export factoring is a factoring specialty. Actually, very few factoring companies offer international export factoring, so when talking to companies be sure to be specific and ask if they offer this type of factoring.

Many factoring companies also offer purchase order financing. This factoring product extension provides you with financing to fulfill purchase orders. Purchase order financing gives you the necessary funding to pay your suppliers, using the purchase order as collateral.

If your company is growing and selling goods offshore, be sure to look into factoring and purchase order funding as valuable financing tools to help you grow.

2007 1 to 6 months in China toys export ranking the first in the world – the export statistics, toy exports, foreign trade data – the toy industry

This year, China’s foreign economic and trade fields to conscientiously implement the scientific concept of development, efforts to change foreign trade growth, focus on improving the quality of foreign investment, accelerate the pace of foreign economic cooperation, to enhance our level of opening up, promoting economic development and make a positive contribution.

  Gradual transformation of foreign trade growth mode

According to statistics, during the first half of this year, China’s import and export volume reached 980.9 billion U.S. dollars, up 23.3%. Among them, the export of 546.7 billion U.S. dollars, up 27.6%; import 434.2 billion U.S. dollars, up 18.2%. Annual import and export volume is expected to more than 2.1 trillion U.S. dollars, exports are expected to further enhance the global ranking. China’s foreign trade showed the first half of the five significant characteristics:

First, foreign trade grew steadily. Accession to the WTO five years, sustained and rapid development of China’s foreign trade, average annual growth of 28%. This trend continued during the first half of this year, import and export growth essentially flat last year. Trade growth is good with the main partners, China and the EU, the United States, Japan, the respective volume of trade reached 158.4 billion, 140.6 billion, 110 billion U.S. dollars, up by 27.3%, 17.4%, 14.5%.

Second, new progress in market diversification. In the first half, China Russia, India, South Africa, ASEAN and Korean exports rose by 71.9%, 64%, 40%, 32.8%, 31%, significantly faster than my US-Japan trade growth in EU and other economies. China to ASEAN, South Korea, Russia, India, Africa, Latin America exports in total exports rose from 21% last year rose to 24%.

Third is to optimize trade structure. The first half of this year, in addition to iron and steel products, other types of “two high and one capital” export growth decline markedly negative growth of fossil fuel exports, which unwrought copper and copper products, wooden products, rare earth, leather, coal, coal tar , rock phosphate and other products of export volume decreased substantially, while the mechanical and electrical products, high-tech products and agricultural exports have increased sharply. Air-conditioning, DVD, camera, notebook computers, mobile phones, color television sets, containers, shoes, toys, bags and other merchandise exports continued to highest in the world.

Fourth, the quality of growth improved significantly. Raise the overall price level of export products, color television sets, automatic data processing equipment and parts, automobiles and automobile chassis, container and other products rise more than 15%. Food exports pass rate was higher in the first half exports to the United States, European Union, Japan, the rate of food passing more than 99%.

5 is to promote foreign trade growth pattern a lot of work to achieve certain results. According to information provided by the Ministry of Commerce, this year, relevant departments of the State Council, we must take a series of measures to ease the pressure on the trade surplus, such as adjusting the export tax rebate rate of some products and the import-export tariff rate to adjust the processing trade policy, and standardization of outdated “award a limited entry” policy, to a certain extent, to curb some of the high energy consumption, high emission and resource exports. Months, has on the 695 kinds of “two high and one capital” Product elimination of export tax refund or levy to raise export tariffs; raise the access threshold of processing trade enterprises, environmental protection, energy, labor, equipment, level indicators into the scope of the audit , some of the goods included in the prohibited category in processing trade; not approved foreign investment in steel iron, aluminum and other countries limit the high-pollution projects. Departments also strengthened the supervision of the quality of export products, targeted to strengthen regulation and control, to clarify the facts, enhance mutual trust.

Absorption of foreign capital and foreign investment continued to increase

Continue to optimize foreign investment structure. The first half of newly approved 18683 foreign investment enterprises, down 5.4%; actual foreign investment 31.9 billion U.S. dollars, up 12.2%. Improve the industrial structure of foreign investment. Services liberalization and international services to seize the opportunity to transfer, to promote substantial growth in the service sector foreign investment, in the first half reached 13.8 billion U.S. dollars, up 58.2%, accounting for actual foreign investment rose from 30.6% last year rose to 43.2% . Foreign investment to improve quality, high-tech industries, research and development, high-end manufacturing sectors and the environmental protection industry to further enhance the proportion of foreign investment.

Marked improvement in the regional structure of foreign investment. Departments concerned to implement the “China Business” project achieved positive results, and promote foreign investment gradually shift to the central and western regions, central and western regions during the first half actual foreign investment increased 21.7%, higher than the national increase of 9.5 percentage points. Ministry of Commerce to promote the undertaking of international service outsourcing transfer projects have also made great progress, only focused on cultivating 625 companies, 50 multinational companies to undertake service outsourcing business; 11 service outsourcing base cities to undertake business process outsourcing and information technology Outsourcing amount of the first half of this year continued to maintain a rapid growth momentum.

Foreign investment cooperation have developed steadily. In the first half, non-financial overseas direct investment rose 21%. Overseas engineering contracts grew 35%. The new contract amount of more than 100 million U.S. dollars of foreign contracted projects and 59 contract SINO Australia Western Australia iron ore, Nigeria Mombela Station, Sudan Khartoum to Port Sudan railway and a number of large projects. At present, there are 46 enterprises enter the world’s largest 225 international contractors ranks of cooperation from the past to the main civil engineering projects such as labor-intensive development to the metallurgical, petrochemical, power, rail transportation and other capital-intensive fields. Turnover of overseas labor cooperation up 27.7%; 6 at the end of labor service personnel abroad 73.3 million, an increase of 9.8 million people.

International Trade ? an Overview of Import and Export

The changing face of international trade, mainly due to e-commerce, is forcing a new approach towards import and export as a consequence, although international trade is necessary for prosperity immaterial of its direction. First, international trade, along with import and export is shown to shrink states’ ability to control the economy thanks to global forces. However, if international trade is what you want to get into, you must be aware of controlling forces like exchange rates, governmental policies and how global sourcing operates. For example, services sector is the rapidly growing international trade, of late.

International trade barriers are being broken and the world is moving closer to an integrated global economy of free international trade. There are indications that complementariness between whole ownership and intra-firm import and export leading to reduced global sourcing costs by coordinated global operations, regulatory changes. However, researches point to conditions which allow global sourcing, international trade or bilateral import & export only when preferential agreements are permitted and conversely, the same global sourcing, international trade or bilateral import & export is declined when preferential trade agreements are forbidden.

On a macro scale, import and export provide significant job opportunities multilaterally. Import and export operators, have a social role to play, by providing training along with jobs. International trade has been omnipresent and its economic and social importance can be felt from the rise in increased multilateral import/export triggered by excellence of global sourcing.

International trade thrives much on Ricardian model of comparative advantage the economies will gain through import/export and global sourcing activities and is probably the critical concept for marching ahead. In simple terms, import and export dwells on those goods that make thorough use of domestic advantages and disadvantages respectively through global sourcing strengths of either of the parties.

-Factors Affecting International Trade and Global Sourcing

The premise that demand driven international trade and global sourcing will ensure efficient production and growth differ hugely for lesser countries pointing to the significance of other factors.

Global sourcing, like international trade, helps countries obtain products by import/export route from another country. Besides, international trade allows countries to partake in a global economy. The bottom line is, import and export, like international trade is reinforcing global communities through managed international trade system to produce expected outcomes.

The two faces of international trade- free trade and protectionism keep clashing. It is a critical component of wealth creation.